Lactulose is a synthetic disaccharide which is produced by the isomerization reaction of lactose in an alkaline environment. Nowadays, the beneficial properties of lactulose in pharmaceutical and nutrition industry have attracted the attentions to explore various perspectives of this disaccharide. Therapeutic effects of lactulose on Portal Systemic Encephalopathy (PSE) and chronic constipation diseases show the importance of lactulose in the pharmaceutical industry. The main challenge associated with laculose synthesis is a considerable amount of unreacted lactose in the reaction media. So far, various methods have been suggested to separation of lactose as an impurity from the lactulose syrup. In this study effect of ethanol and operating temperature on in the separation process of lactose from lactulose syrup was statistically investigated. Taguchi model was utilized to address the importance and effectiveness of the involved factors as well as statistical optimum condition. For this purpose, proportion of ethanol: syrup and operating temperature was were selected as the effective factors. Ethanol: syrup Syrup ratio contains six levels which are 0:2, 2:2, 3:2, 4:2 ,5:2 and 6:2 and operating temperature levels are consist of three levels of 25⁰C (room temperature), 31⁰C, and 37⁰C. Based on the Taguchi model response, Ethanol concentration has the higher the effect than operating temperature on separation of lactose from syrup. Also, Taguchi model revealed that the optimum separation point is at the highest operating temperature and highest ethanol, concentration, however, engineering considerations suggest optimum operating area between 31-37⁰C for operating temperature and 4:2 to 6:2 for ethanol: syrup ratio for.
Irina Khachian has extensive experience in analytical chemistry. She is an Associate Scientist in the Structure Guided Chemistry Department at Dart NeuroScience. Her main focus is on the purification and analysis of small molecules using SFC-MS and HPLC-MS techniques. She is using the latest generation of instruments such as UPC2 and QDa and designs novel components to improve the performance of analytical chemistry systems. She received her MS in Analytical Chemistry from the University of Louisville, Kentucky.
Supercritical Fluid chromatography (SFC) is recognized as a powerful technology for the separation and purification of small chiral and achiral compounds. The flow splitter is a critical instrument component in Preparative SFC-MS instruments that enable efficient and reliable fraction collection by mass. In this study, the evaluation and optimization of tunable and passive flow splitters for preparative SFC-MS are discussed. It has been shown that the passive splitter designed for the Prep100 SFC-MS system can successfully replace the tunable splitter. After several modifications of the passive splitter we were able to minimize the solvent usage for the make-up pump and sustain high resolution, high reproducibility, good peak shape and good recovery of standards. These studies helped us to simplify the instrument hardware, decreased instruments downtime due to splitter clogging and improved the overall reliability and robustness of the Prep100 SFC-MS system.